Английских наречия времени For и Since в предложении отвечают на вопросы When? (когда) и How long? ;как долго)
A. Compare When….? (+ past simple) and How long….? (+ present perfect):
- A: When did it start raining?
- B: It started raining an hour ago / at 1 o’clock.
- A: How long has it been raining?
- B: It’s been raining for an hour / since 1 o’clock.
- A: When did Joe and Carol first meet?
- B: They first met a long time ago / when they were at school.
- A: How long have Joe and Carol known each other?
- B: They’ve known each other for a long time / since they were at school.
B. We use both for and since to say how long something has been happening.
We use for when we say a period of time (two hours, six weeks etc.):
- I’ve been waiting for two hours.
- Sally’s been working here for six months. (not ‘since six months’)
- I haven’t seen Tom for three days. (not ‘since three days’)
for (two hours; 20 minutes; five days; six months; a week; 50 years; a long time; ages)
We use since when we say the start of a period (8 o’clock, Monday, 1985 etc.):
- I’ve been waiting since 8 o’clock. (= from 8 o’clock until now)
- Sally’s been working here since April. (= from April until now)
- I haven’t seen Tom since Monday. (= from Monday until now)
since (8 o’clock; 1977; Monday; Christmas; 12 May; lunchtime; April; they were at school)
It is possible to leave out for (but not usually in negative sentences):
- They’ve been married (for) ten years, (with or without for)
- They haven’t had a holiday for ten years, (you must use for)
We do not use for + all_ (all day / all my life etc.):
- I’ve lived here all my life. (not ‘for all my life’)
C. We say ‘It’s (a long time / two years etc.) since something happened’:
- It’s two years since I last saw Joe. (= I haven’t seen Joe. for two years / the last time I saw Joe was two years ago)
- It’s ages since we went to the cinema. (= We haven’t been to the cinema for ages)
The question is How long is it since_?
- How long is it since you last saw Joe? (= When did you last see Joe?)
- How long is it since Mrs Hill died? (= When did Mrs Hill die?)
1 Write questions with how long and when.
1 It’s raining.
(how long ?) How long has it been raining?
(when?)When did it start raining?
2 Kate is learning Italian.
(how long / learn?)_______________________________________________________________
(when / start / learn?) _____________________________________________________________
3 I know Martin.
(how long/ know?)_______________________________________________________________
(when / first / meet?)______________________________________________________________
4 Bob and Alice are married.
(how long?) ____________________________________________________________________
2 Read the situations and complete the sentences beginning in the way shown.
- (It’s raining now. It’s been raining since lunchtime.) It started raining at lunchtime
- (Ann and I are friends. We first met years ago.) We’ve known each other for years
- (Mark is ill. He became ill on Sunday.) He has ___________________________________
- (Mark is ill. He became ill a few days ago.) He has _______________________________
- (Sarah is married. She’s been married for two years.) She got______________________
- (You’ve got a camera. You bought it ten years ago.) I’ve _________________________
- (Sue has been in France for the last three weeks.) She went________________________
- (You’re working in a hotel. You started in June.) I’ve _____________________________
3 Put in for or since.
- It’s been raining __since_ lunchtime.
- Tom’s father has been doing the same job________________ 20 years.
- Have you been learning English __________ a long time?
- Sarah has lived in London __________ 1985.
- ________________ Christmas, the weather has been quite good.
- Please hurry up! We’ve been waiting ________________ an hour.
- Kevin has been looking for a job________________ he left school.
- The house is very dirty. We haven’t cleaned it________________ ages.
- I haven’t had a good meal__________last Tuesday.
4 Write B’s sentences using the words in brackets.
- A: Do you often go on holiday?
- B: (no / five years) __No, I haven’t had a holiday for five years
- A: Do you often eat in restaurants?
- B: (no / ages) No, I___________________________ ___________________________________
- A: Do you often see Sarah?
- B: (no / about a month) No, _____________________________________________________
- A: Do you often go to the cinema?
- B: (no / a long time) ___________________________________________________________
Now write B’s answers again. This time use It’s……. since……..
(1) No, it’s five years since I had a holiday
(2) No, it’s _____________________________________________________