Инфинитивные обороты

В этом разделе мы рассмотрим английские предложения, структуры которых нетипичны и несвойственны для русского языка. Но они очень часто встречаются в английском языке.


Такие предложения базируются на инфинитивных оборотах и ряде слов типа enough, how, so, likely, too, etc.


Построение подобных предложений другими способами приводит к значительному усложнению предложения и не английскому их виду.


1.   Get, become, grow, etc. + adjective (прилагательное)
He got tired. (tired — прилагательное)
He got sick.
I am getting ready.
He became famous.
She grew old.
He looked sad.
She went bald.
He fell asleep.


2.   Verb + to — infinitive as object
He wanted to go.
I tried to come early.


3.   Verb + to — infinitive expressing purpose (инфинитив в качестве дополнения)
We eat to live.
We went to see the Exhibition.
They ran to help her.


4.   Verb + noun/pronoun + to — infinitive
I asked him to go.
She wished me to stay.
I cant allow you to smoke.

5.   Verb + ing form
They stopped playing. (playing — герундий)
I remember doing it.
She loves buying clothes.


6.   It is + useless/no good, etc. + ing form / to — infinitive
It is useless arguing with him. (arguing причастие)
It was no good making such excuses.
It is foolish behaving like that.
It is bad to borrow money.
It is difficult to spell the word.

7.   It is (was)…that (who).
It was at the London conference that the resolution was submitted — Именно на конференции в Лондоне была выдвинута резолюция.
It was yesterday that I met him.


8.    Too + adjective (or adverb) + to — infinitive
She is too weak to carry the box.
He is too stupid to understand.
He was too busy to answer her letter.
The boy is too lazy to work.


9.   Adjective (or adverb) + enough + to — infinitive
He is clever enough to understand the lesson.
She is stupid enough to believe us.
We arrived early enough to attend the lecture.


10.   How/What + Adjective (or adverb) + subject + verb
How lovely the garden is!
How charming she is!
What a terrible noise that is!
What’s a fool!


11.   Verb + how, where, etc. + to — infinitive
I know how to swim.
I wonder where to spend the weekend.
I forgot when to turn.


12.   Verb + so
Is Tom here? I think so.
Will father be back today? I expect so.


13.   So + Adjective (or adverb) + that clause
This coffee is so hot that I can’t drink it.
It is so dark that I can see nothing.


14.   It is likely/certain/strange/possible/doubtful/incredible/good thing/good news/pity/mystery that there will be rain tonight.

15.   Wish + noun clauses
I wish we lived in America.