Грамматика

Passive (1) (is done / was done)

Мы используем пассивный залог, чтобы изменить смысл предложения. Мы делаем пассив, используя глагол be + причастие прошедшего времени. Мы начинаем предложение с объекта. Не всегда нужно добавлять, кто или что совершил действие.

 

A. Study this example:

 

This house was built in 1930.

 

‘Was built’ is passive. Compare active and passive:

 

Somebody (subject) built this house (object) in 1930. (active)

This house (object) was built in 1930. (passive)

 

We use an active verb to say what the subject does:

 

  • My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1930.
  • It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people.

 

We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject:

 

  • This house is quite old. It was built in 1930.
  • Two hundred people are employed by the company.

 

B. When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:

 

  • A lot of money was stolen in the robbery, (somebody stole it but we don’t know who)
  • Is this room cleaned every day? (does somebody clean it? — it’s not important who)

 

If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by…:

 

  • This house was built by my grandfather.
  • Two hundred people are employed by the company.

 

C. The passive is

 

be (is/was/have been etc.) + the past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.):

 

(be) done   (be) cleaned   (be) seen   (be) damaged   (be) built etc.

 

Study the active and passive forms of the present simple and past simple:

 

Present simple

 

active: clean(s)/see(s) etc.

 

Somebody cleans this room every day.

 

passive: am/is/are cleaned/seen etc. This room is cleaned every day.
  • Many accidents are caused by careless driving.
  • I’m not often invited to parties.
  • How is this word pronounced?
Past simple

 

active: cleaned/saw etc.

 

Somebody cleaned this room yesterday.

 

passive: was/were cleaned/seen etc. This room was cleaned yesterday.
  • We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.
  • ‘Did you go to the party?’ ‘No, I wasn’t invited.’
  • ‘How much money was stolen?

 

EXERCISES

 

1 Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form:

 

cause   damage   hold   include   invite   make   overtake   show     translate   write

 

  1. Many accidents …are caused by dangerous driving.
  2. Cheese …………………………………………… from milk.
  3. The roof of the building …………………………………………… in a storm a few days ago.
  4. There’s no need to leave a tip. Service …………………………………………… in the bill.
  5. You …………………………………………… to the wedding. Why didn’t you go?
  6. A cinema is a place where films ……………………………………………
  7. In the United States, elections for President…………………………………………… every four years.
  8. Originally the book …………………. in Spanish and a few years ago it……………………………. into English.
  9. We were driving along quite fast but we …………………………………………… by lots of other cars.

 

2 Write questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past.

 

  1. Ask about the telephone, (when/invent?)  ..When was the telephone invented?...
  2. Ask about glass, (how/make?)   How …………………………………………………………………………………….
  3. Ask about Australia, (when/discover?)   ………………………………………………………………………………….
  4. Ask about silver, (what/use for?)    ………………………………………………………………………………………..
  5. Ask about television, (when/invent?)    …………………………………………………………………………………..

 

3 Put thhe verb into the correct form, present simple or past simple, active or passive.

 

  1. It’s a big factory. Five hundred people …are employed... (employ) there.
  2. Water …………………………………………… (cover) most of the Earth’s surface.
  3. Most of the Earth’s surface …………………………………………… (cover) by water.
  4. The park gates …………………………………………… (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
  5. The letter …………………………….. (post) a week ago and it………………………………. (arrive) yesterday.
  6. The boat……………………. (sink) quickly but fortunately everybody ………………………………. (rescue).
  7. Ron’s parents ……………… (die) when he was very young. He and his sister……………………………….. (bring) up by their grandparents.
  8. I was born in London but I………………………………………….. (grow) up in the north of England.
  9. While I was on holiday, my camera ………………………………………… (steal) from my hotel room.
  10. While I was on holiday, my camera …………………………………….. (disappear) from my hotel room.
  11. Why …………………………………………… (Sue/resign) from her job? Didn’t she enjoy it?
  12. Why …………………………………………… (Bill/sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
  13. The company is not independent. It…………………………………… (own) by a much larger company.
  14. I saw an accident last night. Somebody ………………………… (call) an ambulance but nobody ……………………………………… (injure) so the ambulance ……………………………………. (not/need).
  15. Where ………………. (these photographs/take)? In London?…………………………. (you/take) them?

 

4 Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using ‘somebody/they/people’ etc. write a passive sentence.

 

  1. Somebody cleans the room every day.  .. .The room is cleaned every day….
  2. They cancelled all flights because of fog.   All …………………………………………………………………………..
  3. People don’t use this road very often.    ………………………………………………………………………………….
  4. Somebody accused me of stealing money.   I ………………………………………………………………………….
  5. How do people learn languages?   How……………………………………………………………………………………
  6. People advised us not to go out alone.    …………………………………………………………………………………