A. Study this example situation:
Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key.
‘He has lost his key’ = He lost it and he still hasn’t got it.
Have/has lost is the present perfect simple:
|I/we/they/you||have||(= I’ve etc.)||finished
|he/she/it||has||(= he’s etc.)||done
The present perfect simple is have/has + past participle.
The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided etc.), but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/been/written etc.).
B. When we use the present perfect there is always a connection with now.
The action in the past has a result now.
- ‘Where’s your key?’ ‘I don’t know. I’ve lost it.’ (I haven’t got it now}
- He told me his name but I’ve forgotten it. (I can’t remember it now)
- ‘Is Sally here?’ ‘No, she’s gone out.’ (she is out now)
- I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it? (do you know where it is now?)
We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:
- Ow! I’ve cut my finger.
- The road is closed. There’s been (= there has been) an accident.
- (from the news) The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.
C. You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet
Just = ‘a short time ago’:
- ‘Would you like something to eat?’ ‘No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.’
- Hello. Have you just arrived?
We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected
- ‘Don’t forget to post the letter, will you?’ ‘I’ve already posted it.’
- ‘What time is Mark leaving?’ ‘He’s already gone.’
Yet = ‘until now’ and shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences
- Has it stopped raining yet?
- I’ve written the letter but I haven’t posted it yet.
D. Note the difference between gone (to) and been (to):
- Jim is away on holiday. He has gone to Spain. (= he is there now or on his way there)
- Jane is back home from holiday now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now come back from Italy)
7.1 You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people. Use the words given to make sentences. Use the present perfect.
Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.
- I / buy /a new car . __________________________________
- my father / start / a new job ___________________________________________________________
- I / give up / smoking _________________________________________________________________
- Charles and Sarah /go/to Brazil_________________________________________________________
- Suzanne / have / a baby ______________________________________________________________
7.2 Read the situations and write sentences. Choose one of the following:
arrive break go up grow improve lose
- Mike is looking for his key. He can’t find it. __ _________________________________________
- Margaret can’t walk and her leg is in plaster. She ________________________________________
- Maria’s English wasn’t very good. Now it is much better__________________________________
- Tim didn’t have a beard last month. Now he has a beard__________________________________
- This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it. _____________________________________
- Last week the bus fare was 80 pence. Now it is 90. _______________________________________
7.3 Complete B’s sentences.
Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet.
- A «Would you like something to eat?
- B No, thanks. _______________________lunch, (just/have)
- A Do you know where Julia is?
- B Yes, I______________________ her. (just/see)
- A «What time is David leaving?
- B He _______________________ (already/leave)
- A What’s in the newspaper today?
- B I don’t know. I________________________(not/read/yet)
- A Is Ann coming to the cinema with us?
- B No, she _____________ the film. (already/see)
- A Are your friends here yet?
- B Yes, they _____________________ (just/arrive)
- A «What does Tim think about your plan?
- B I_____________________________ (not/tell/yet)
7.4 Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet.
- After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says ‘Would you like something to eat?’ You say: No, thank you. ______________________ (have lunch)
- Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says ‘Can I speak to Joe?’ You say: I’m afraid _______________________ (go out)
- You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away. You say: Wait a minute! ________________________ (not/finish)
- You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says ‘Shall I phone to reserve a table?’ You say: No,_________it. (do)
- You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask . her. You say: __________________________? (find)
- Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks ‘Is Ann still at the bank?’ You say: No,________________________ (come back)
7.5 Put in been or gone.
- Jim is on holiday. He’s ___________ to Italy.
- Hello! I’ve just________________ to the shops. I’ve bought lots of things.
- Alice isn’t here at the moment. She’s _______________ to the shop to get a newspaper.
- Tom has ________________ out. He’ll be back in about an hour.
- ‘Are you going to the bank?’ ‘No, I’ve already _______________ to the bank.’