Грамматика

Present perfect (часть 1)

 

A. Study this example situation:

 

Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key.

 

‘He has lost his key’ = He lost it and he still hasn’t got it.

 

Have/has lost is the present perfect simple:

 

I/we/they/you have (= I’ve etc.) finished
lost
he/she/it has (= he’s etc.) done
been

 

The present perfect simple is have/has + past participle.

 

The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided etc.), but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/been/written etc.).

 

B. When we use the present perfect there is always a connection with now.

 

The action in the past has a result now.

 

  1. ‘Where’s your key?’ ‘I don’t know. I’ve lost it.’ (I haven’t got it now}
  2. He told me his name but I’ve forgotten it. (I can’t remember it now)
  3. ‘Is Sally here?’ ‘No, she’s gone out.’ (she is out now)
  4. I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it? (do you know where it is now?)

We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:

 

  1. Ow! I’ve cut my finger.
  2. The road is closed. There’s been (= there has been) an accident.
  3. (from the news) The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.

C. You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet

 

Just = ‘a short time ago’:

 

  • ‘Would you like something to eat?’ ‘No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.’
  • Hello. Have you just arrived?


We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected

 

  • ‘Don’t forget to post the letter, will you?’  ‘I’ve already posted it.’
  • ‘What time is Mark leaving?’ ‘He’s already gone.’

 

Yet = ‘until now’ and shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences

 

  • Has it stopped raining yet?
  • I’ve written the letter but I haven’t posted it yet.

D. Note the difference between gone (to) and been (to):

 

  • Jim is away on holiday. He has gone to Spain. (= he is there now or on his way there)
  • Jane is back home from holiday now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now come back from Italy)

EXERCISES

 

7.1 You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people. Use the words given to make sentences. Use the present perfect.

 

Dear Chris,
Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.

  1. I / buy /a new car . __________________________________
  2. my father / start / a new job  ___________________________________________________________
  3. I / give up / smoking _________________________________________________________________
  4. Charles and Sarah /go/to Brazil_________________________________________________________
  5. Suzanne / have / a baby ______________________________________________________________

7.2 Read the situations and write sentences. Choose one of the following:

 

arrive   break   go up   grow   improve   lose

 

  1. Mike is looking for his key. He can’t find it. __ _________________________________________
  2. Margaret can’t walk and her leg is in plaster. She ________________________________________
  3. Maria’s English wasn’t very good. Now it is much better__________________________________
  4. Tim didn’t have a beard last month. Now he has a beard__________________________________
  5. This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it. _____________________________________
  6. Last week the bus fare was 80 pence. Now it is 90. _______________________________________

7.3 Complete B’s sentences.

 

Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet.

 

  • A «Would you like something to eat?
  • B No, thanks. _______________________lunch, (just/have)

 

  • A Do you know where Julia is?
  • B Yes, I______________________ her. (just/see)

 

  • A «What time is David leaving?
  • B  He _______________________ (already/leave)

 

  • A What’s in the newspaper today?
  • B I don’t know. I________________________(not/read/yet)

 

  • A Is Ann coming to the cinema with us?
  • B No, she _____________ the film. (already/see)

 

  • A Are your friends here yet?
  • B Yes, they _____________________ (just/arrive)

 

  • A «What does Tim think about your plan?
  • B I_____________________________ (not/tell/yet)

7.4 Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet.

 

  1. After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says ‘Would you like something to eat?’ You say: No, thank you. ______________________ (have lunch)
  2. Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says ‘Can I speak to Joe?’ You say: I’m afraid _______________________ (go out)
  3. You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away. You say: Wait a minute! ________________________ (not/finish)
  4. You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says ‘Shall I phone to reserve a table?’ You say: No,_________it. (do)
  5. You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask . her. You say: __________________________? (find)
  6. Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks ‘Is Ann still at the bank?’ You say: No,________________________ (come back)

7.5 Put in been or gone.

 

  1. Jim is on holiday. He’s ___________ to Italy.
  2. Hello! I’ve just________________ to the shops. I’ve bought lots of things.
  3. Alice isn’t here at the moment. She’s _______________ to the shop to get a newspaper.
  4. Tom has ________________ out. He’ll be back in about an hour.
  5. ‘Are you going to the bank?’   ‘No, I’ve already _______________ to the bank.’