Грамматика

Will/shall

A. We use I’ll (= I will)

 

When we decide to do something at the time of speaking:

 

  • Oh, I’ve left the door open. I’ll go and shut it.
  • «What would you like to drink?» «I’ll have an orange juice, please.»
  • «Did you phone Ruth?» «Oh no, I forgot. I’ll phone her now.»

You cannot use the present simple (I do /1 go etc.) in these sentences;

 

  • I’ll go and shut the door. {not «I go and shut»)

We often use I think I’ll…..and I don’t think I’ll….:

 

  • I feel a bit hungry. I think I’ll have something to eat.
  • I don’t think I’ll go out tonight. I’m too tired.

In spoken English the negative of will is usually won’t (= will not):

 

  • I can see you’re busy, so I won’t stay long.

B. Do not use will to talk about what you have already decided or arranged to do

 

  • I’m going on holiday next Saturday, [not «I’ll go»)
  • Are you working tomorrow? (not «will you work»)

C. We often use will in these situations:

 

Offering to do something

 

  • That bag looks heavy. I’ll help you with it. (not «I help»)

 

Agreeing to do something

 

  • A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you’ve finished with it?
  • B: Of course. I’ll give it to you this afternoon, (not «I give»)

 

Promising to do something

 

  • Thanks for lending me the money. I’ll pay you back on Friday, (not «I pay»)
  • I won’t tell anyone what happened. I promise.

 

Asking somebody to do something (Will you…?)

 

  • Will you please be quiet? I’m trying to concentrate.
  • Will you shut the door, please?

You can use won’t to say that somebody refuses to do something:

 

  • I’ve tried to advise her but she won’t listen. (= she refuses to listen)
  • The car won’t start. I wonder what’s wrong with it. (= the car «refuses» to start)

D. Shall I…. Shall we…?

 

Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I_? / shall we_?

We use shall I…? / shall we…? to ask somebody’s opinion (especially in offers or suggestions):

 

  • Shall I open the window? (= do you want me to open the window?)
  • I’ve got no money. What shall I do? (= what do you suggest?)
  • «Shall we go?» «Just a minute. I’m not ready yet.»
  • Where shall we go this evening?

Compare shall I…? and will you…?:

 

  • Shall I shut the door? (= do you want me to shut it?)
  • Will you shut the door? (= I want you to shut it)

EXERCISES

 

1 Complete the sentences with I’ll + a suitable verb.

 

  1. I’m too tired to walk home. I think _I’ll get_ a taxi.
  2. ‘It’s a bit cold in this room.’   ‘Is it?   _________________________ on the heating then.’
  3. ‘We haven’t got any milk.’   ‘Oh, haven’t we?   _________________________ and get some.’
  4. ‘Do you want me to do the washing-up?’   ‘No, it’s all right.   ________________________ it.’
  5. ‘I don’t know how to use this computer.’   ‘OK,_________________________ you.’
  6. ‘Would you like tea or coffee?’   ‘_________________________ coffee, please.’
  7. ‘Goodbye! Have a nice holiday.’   ‘Thanks.   _______________________:_ you a postcard.’
  8. Thank you for lending me your camera.   _________________________ it back to you on Monday, OK?
  9. ‘Are you coming with us?’   ‘No, I think _________________________ here.’

2 Read the situations and write sentences with I think I’ll….or I don’t think I’ll…. .

 

  1. It’s a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I’ll close the window
  2. You are feeling tired and it’s quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say: I think________________ ____________________________________________________________
  3. A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. You say: Thank you but_______ _______________________________________________________
  4. You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don’t want to play. You say: I don’t think ______________________________________________________________
  5. You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don’t want to go. You say: _______________ _______________________________________________

3 Which is correct?

 

  1. ‘Did you phone Ruth?’ ‘Oh no, I forgot. I phone / I’ll phone her now.’ (I’ll phone is correct)
  2. I can’t meet you tomorrow afternoon. I’m playing / I’ll play tennis. (I’m playing is correct)
  3. I meet / I’ll meet you outside the hotel in half an hour, OK?’  ‘Yes, that’s fine.’
  4. ‘I need some money.’ ‘OK, I’m lending / I’ll lend you some. How much do you need?’
  5. I’m having / I’ll have a party next Saturday. I hope you can come.
  6. ‘Remember to buy a newspaper when you go out.’ ‘OK. I don’t forget / I won’t forget.
  7. What time does your train leave / will your train leave tomorrow?
  8. I asked Sue what happened but she doesn’t tell / won’t tell me.
  9. Are you doing / Will you do anything tomorrow evening?’ ‘No, I’m free. Why?’
  10. I don’t want to go out alone. Do you come / Will you come with me?
  11. It’s a secret between us. I promise I don’t tell /1 won’t tell anybody.

4 What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with shall I…? or shall we…?

 

  1. You and a friend want to do something this evening but you don’t know what. You ask your friend. What shall we do this evening?
  2. You try on a jacket in a shop. You are not sure whether to buy it or not. You ask a friend for advice_____________________________________________________________________________ it?
  3. It’s Ann’s birthday next week. You want to give her a present but you don’t know what. You ask a friend for advice. What ____________________________________________________________
  4. You and a friend are going on holiday together but you haven’t decided where. You ask him/her. ____________________________________________________________________________
  5. You and a friend are going out. You haven’t decided whether to go by car or to walk. You ask him/her. _____________________________________ or ____________________________________
  6. Your friend wants you to phone later. You don’t know what time to phone. You ask him/her. _________________________________________________________________

A. We do not use «will»

 

to say what somebody has already arranged or decided to do in the future:

 

  • Ann is working next week. (not «Ann will work’)
  • Are you going to watch television this evening? (not «will you watch’)

But often, when we talk about the future, we are not talking about what somebody has decided to do.

 

For example:

 

CHRIS: Do you think Ann will pass the exam?
JOE:   Yes, she’ll pass easily.

 

‘She’ll pass» does not mean «she has decided to pass «. Joe is saying what he knows or thinks will happen. He is predicting the future.

When we predict a future happening or situation, we use will/won’t.

 

  • Jill has been away a long time. When she returns, she’ll find a lot of changes.
  • ‘Where will you be this time next year?» «I’ll be in Japan.’
  • That plate is very hot. If you touch it, you’ll burn yourself.
  • Tom won’t pass the examination. He hasn’t worked hard enough for it.
  • When will you know your exam results?

B. We often use will (‘ll) with:

 

probably I’ll probably be home late this evening.
I expect I haven’t seen Carol today. I expect she’ll phone this evening.
(I’m) sure Don’t worry about the exam. I’m sure you’ll pass.
(I) think
Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her?
(I) don’t think
I don’t think the exam will be very difficult.
I wonder
I wonder what will happen.

 

After (I) hope, we generally use the present:

 

  • I hope Carol phones this evening.
  • I hope it doesn’t rain tomorrow.

C. Generally we use will to talk about the future, but sometimes we use will to talk about now.

 

For example:

 

  • Don’t phone Ann now. She’ll be busy. (= I know she’ll be busy now)

D. I shall…./we shall….

 

Normally we use shall only with I and we.

You can say I shall or I will (I’ll), we shall or we will (we’ll):

 

  • I shall be tired this evening, (or I will be…)
  • We shall probably go to Scotland for our holiday, (or We will probably go…)

 

In spoken English we normally use I’ll and we’ll:

 

  • We’ll probably go to Scotland.

 

The negative of shall is shall not or shan’t:

 

  • I shan’t be here tomorrow, (or I won’t be…)

 

Do not use shall with he/she/it/you/they:

 

  • She will be very angry, (not «she shall be’)

EXERCISES

 

1 Which form of the verb is correct (or more natural) in these sentences? The verbs are underlined.

 

  1. Ann isn’t free on Saturday. She’ll work / She’s working. (She’s working is correct)
  2. I’ll go / I’m going to a party tomorrow night. Would you like to come too?
  3. I think Jane will get / is getting the job. She has a lot of experience.
  4. I can’t meet you this evening. A friend of mine will come / is coming to see me.
  5. A: Have you decided where to go for your holidays? B: Yes, we will go / we are going to Italy.
  6. There’s no need to be afraid of the dog. It won’t hurt / It isn’t hurting you.

2 Complete the sentences with will (‘ll) + one of these verbs:

 

be   be   come   get   like   look   meet   pass

 

  1. Don’t worry about your exam. I’m sure you «ll pass.
  2. Why don’t you try on this jacket? It_________________________ nice on you.
  3. You must meet George sometime. I think you _________________________ him.
  4. It’s raining. Don’t go out. You _________________________ wet.
  5. They’ve invited me to their house. They _________________________ offended if I don’t go.
  6. Goodbye. I expect we _________________________ again before long.
  7. I’ve invited Sue to the party but I don’t think she __________________________
  8. I wonder where I_________________________ 20 years from now.

3 Put in will (‘ll) or won’t.

 

  1. Can you wait for me? I_won’t_ be very long.
  2. There’s no need to take an umbrella with you. It________________ rain.
  3. If you don’t eat anything now, you ________________ be hungry later.
  4. I’m sorry about what happened yesterday. It________________ happen again.
  5. I’ve got some incredible news! You ________________ never believe what’s happened.
  6. Don’t ask Margaret for advice. She ________________ know what to do.

4 Where will you be at these times? Write true sentences about yourself.

 

Use one of these:

I’ll be or I expect I’ll be or I’ll probably be or I don’t know where I’ll be. or I’m not sure. I might be

 

  1. (next Monday evening at 7.45)    I’ll probably be at home or  I’m not sure. I might be at the cinema or    I don’t know where I’ll be. (etc.)
  2. (at 5 o’clock tomorrow morning) ________________________________________________________
  3. (at 10.30 tomorrow morning)____________________________________________________________
  4. (next Saturday afternoon at 4.15)_______________________________________________________
  5. (this time next year)__________________________________________________________________

5 Write questions using do you think….will…..? + one of these verbs:

 

be back    cost    finish    get married    happen    like    rain

 

  1. I’ve bought Mary a present. __ Do you think she’ll like it?
  2. The weather doesn’t look very good. Do you ____________________________________________
  3. The meeting is still going on. When do you ___________________________________________
  4. My car needs to be repaired. How much__________________________________________________
  5. Sally and David are in love. Do _________________________________________________________
  6. I’m going out now.»   «OK. What time__________________________________________________
  7. The future situation is uncertain. What ___________________________________________________