Messages by electriсity
Electricity completely changed communications. Once it was discovered that an electric current would flow along a wire, it seemed possible that it could be used for sending messages.
Section 1. Language work
А. Reading vocabulary, what is it?
Vocabulary has to do with words and their meanings. You have four different vocabularies (for speaking, writing, listening and reading). Your reading vocabulary is the largest. It consists of all the words you recognize and comprehend when you see them. Vocabulary of scientists and engineers consists of common words, terms and connectors. Common words are the words we use in ordinary affairs (e.g. table, book). Terms are mostly used in special works dealing with the notions of some branch of science. They are directly connected with the concept they denote. When something new comes along, new terms are invented (e.g. laser, teleprinter). Connectors are words which show how one word is related to another and how one statement is related to another (e.g. of, how).
1. Add the following words to your reading vocabulary:
communication, a current, a wire, to flow along the wire, a message, to send a message, to connect, to prove, to invent, inventor, invention, a needle of a compass, the Morse code, speed, at great speed, the speed of light, simple, to simplify, insulation, insulator, insulating substance (material), to protect, to leak away, leakage, to be laid under water, to damage, to obtain, unsuccessful attempt, to use, useful, useless, to be of any use, to be widely used, to transmit, cable-laying ship.
Remember: you should be able to recognize these words in the text and comprehend them.
2. Recognize the new words
Each problem consists of a «test word» followed by five other words, one of which is exactly the same as the «test word’. Find which it is and write down its number. (The exercise is to be timed.)
3. Comprehend the new words
Each problem consists of a «test word» followed by four possible meanings. Write down the number of the word that means most nearly the same as the «test word».
|to insulate||to help||to isolate||to repeat||to develop|
|to connect||to create||to close||to answer||to put through|
|to obtain||to get||to offer||to use||to move|
|to transmit||to follow||to answer||to transfer||to take|
4. Translate the sentences into Russian
1. Electricity and magnetism are connected. 2. A needle of a compass is a magnet. 3. A needle of a compass moves when it is put near a wire. 4. Electromagnets can be used to send messages. 5. Electric current flows along a wire. 6. S. Morse invented the code. 7. Electric current is used to send messages. 8. The Morse code is widely used because it is the easiest to understand and the fastest to transmit. 9. Dry air is a good insulator. 10. Insulator is used to protect telegraph wires against damages.
5. Read a microtext. What common words, terms and connectors are used in this text?
The question is often asked: «What is an electric current?». If we examine the inside of a copper (медный) wire while a current is flowing, we can see an electron which leaves one copper atom and moves over to the next copper atom and so on. This stream (поток) of electrons moving along from atom to atom is called an electric current.
No one has ever seen an electric current. We only know of the existence (существование) of a current thanks to its effects. Among other effects it can produce a magnetic effect. When it was test word discovered that electricity and magnetism were connected, telegraphs became possible.
6. Each problem consists of several connectors.
Read them and say, why they are grouped together, what is their general meaning.
and, or, but, so, however now, then, before, after, whole
here, there, in, out, on, off, to, from some, many, none, a lot of, few I, me, us, we, you, he she, it, him, her is, am, are, make, makes, do, does
7. Translate the following definitions and memorize the terms:
Cable. A transmission line or a group of transmission lines mechanically assembled into a complex flexible form.
Code. A plan for representing each of a finite number of symbols as a particular arrangement or sequence of discrete conditions.
Communication. The transmission of information from one point to another by means of electromagnetic waves.
Word Order of a Simple Sentence
What makes a text difficult to understand? It is not always because the ideas are difficult to follow. Sometimes it is because the sentences are difficult to understand. Always pay very careful attention to the word order of the English sentence. As English words have hardly any inflexions and their relation to each other is shown by their place in the sentence and not by their form, word order in English is fixed. Read reference material on page … and do some grammar exercises.
1. Read the following sentences. Write out the words or phrases which are the subjects of the sentences.
1. With practice, the Morse code can be read at 30 words a minute or more. 2. It became the most widely used code. 3. Soon people wanted to send messages even faster. 4. In 1847 gutta-percha was introduced as an insulating material. 5. After several unsuccessful attempts in 1866 Britain and America were linked by the underwater cable. 6. Electricity completely changed communication. 7. One of the most famous people of all in communication is Samuel Morse.
2. Read the following sentences. Mark the beginning of the predicate in each sentence.
1. Electric current can be used for sending messages. 2. A compass needle is a magnet. 3. The Morse code is still used all over the world. 4. S. Morse thought of using time, sending current along a wire for a long time or a short time. 5. The main problem was isolation. 6. Gutta-percha does not allow electricity to flow through it easily. 7. Nowadays it is possible to telegraph from almost everywhere.
3. Read the following sentences and find objects in all of them.
1. Our laboratory carried on experiments with polymers during the summer. 2. They found out some mistakes in their calculations. 3. He sent his brother a telegram. 4. They have been developing the filter for about six months. 5. I have known him since 1980. 6. By the end of the year they will have settled all the problems. 7. This experiment will give good results.
4. Fill in the blanks with the attributes.
1. The telegraph meant that at last people could send messages at … speed. 2. … air is a good insulator. 3. The dots and dashes used in the Morse code can be made by … impulses passing through a wire. 4. The letters SOS are used in times of danger because they are … letters to signal. 5. Morse is one of the … people in communication. 6. Insulation was the … problem about sending messages by telegraph under the sea. 7. Gutta-percha is a … material for insulating telegraph cables.
5. Read the following sentences and say where adverbial modifiers stand.
1. He did not like George and me very much. 2. I met him today. 3. Sometimes we liked swimming together. 4. We are still waiting. 5. I have never been to Spain. 6. I have found some mistakes already. 7. Twenty years ago I finished school.
6. Use the following words to construct simple sentences.
1. communications, completely, electricity, changed. 2. is used, insulation, to protect telephone lines. 3. by, electricity, messages, at great speed, can be sent. 4. became interested, he, in this problem. 5. for Kiev, on Wednesday, are leaving, they. 6. the new device, our engineers, last year, tested.
7. Each problem consists of a simple sentence.
If it is affirmative, make interrogative and negative sentences out of it. If it is negative, make affirmative and interrogative sentences. If it is interrogative, make affirmative and negative sentences.
1. I have found some mistakes already. 2. He did not like us very much. 3. Did you know him well? 4. He always does his work properly. 5. A friend is a person we like and know well. 6. The boys were not placed in the same class. 7. Are the pages in your note-book numbered? 8. Light travels much faster than sound. 9. Has he been learning English since childhood?
8. Translate the imperative sentences.
1. Come to the blackboard. 2. Stop talking. 3. Open the door, please. 4. Have a seat. 5. Be careful. 6. Don’t go yet. 7. Let’s discuss the problem. 8. Let him explain the rule. 9. Let her do this work.
1. Form Participle I and Participle II of the following verbs:
to carry, to be, to follow, to make, to find, to begin, to see, to think, to become, to mean, to know, to understand, to invent, to discover, to change, to transmit, to simplify.
2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of Continuous Tenses:
1. I was listening to the record at the phonetic laboratory when my friend came in and asked me to help him with the translation. 2. They are leaving for Vladivostok on Wednesday. 3. I shall be listening to the wireless programs in English all day tomorrow. 4. He is always making mistakes in his dictation. 5. My friend was writing the essay from 9 o’clock in the morning till one in the afternoon. 6. I am translating the text now. 7. On Thursday I shall still be working on the text. 8. Now they are organizing another kind of work at their laboratory.
3. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of Perfect Tenses:
1. By the end of the previous term the students had mastered the necessary lab techniques. 2. By the end of the year they will have settled all the problems and will begin their tests. 3. They have developed the new waterproof cable which will help to solve all the problems relating to telephone service failures since water cannot enter the space between insulated conductors. 4. He has already returned to Moscow. 5. I have known him since 1980. 6. I have never been to Kiev. 7. Have you ever been to Kiev? 8. The scientists of our laboratory had been carrying out experiments with a new type of insulating material for several years before they got positive results. 9. Our engineers had been testing the new device for some months before it was put into service. 10. By the end of the year they will have been carrying out field trials with a new teleprinter for several months. 11. They will have been carrying out this work until they get the necessary data.
4. Open the brackets using the correct tense form:
1. Our scientists (to develop) new units for these repeaters now. 2. This laboratory (to develop) new electronic telephone system. 3. The Research Branch of the Engineering Department (to develop) a small experimental exchange which will use many integrated circuits. 4. Our laboratory (to carry on) experiments with polymers during the summer. 5. Before they began developing this system they (to develop) a new type of filter for it. 6. We hope that we (to develop) this device by the end of the year. 7. The post office (to carry out) trials with this type of TV system during the summer. 8. They (to develop) the filter for about six months before they found out some mistakes in their calculations.
Skill 1. The ability to single out the theme of the reading passage
The ability to read well is not just a single skill. It is a whole group of skills that work together. You can develop and sharpen all of your skills, and when you do, reading will be easier.
Text. MESSAGES BY ELECTRICITY
Electricity completely changed communications. Once it was discovered that an electric current would flow along a wire, it seemed possible that it could be used for sending messages. As long as two places were connected by a wire1 electric currents could be sent along it. They could be sent with the speed of light. The question was how could electric current make words?
Real telegraphs were not possible until it was proved that electricity and magnetism were connected. It was found that a needle of a compass moved when it was put near a wire with a current flowing through it. A compass needle is a magnet. If a wire carrying a current could move it, then the wire must be a magnet too.
A lot of people began to see how electro-magnets could be used to send messages. One of the most famous people of all in communication is Samuel Morse. He invented the Morse code. This code is still used in signaling all over the world.2 His idea was simple. He thought of using time, sending current along a wire for a long time or a short time. Combining different sets of these «impulses»,3 just using the long or short, he made a code for the whole alphabet, and the numbers from 0 to 9.
The Morse code simplified sending messages. It was also very fast. With practice, the Morse code can be read at 30 words a minute or more. It became the most widely used code because it was the easiest to understand and the fastest to transmit.4 The telegraph meant that at last people could send messages a long way at great speed. Soon people wanted to send messages even farther.
If two places on land, say, London and Manchester could be connected by wire, why could not the lands themselves — England and America, for instance, be connected by wires under the sea? This was a question quickly answered after the telegraph was proved to work. There were some problems about this, however. The main one was insulation, which means protecting the wire so that electric current does not leak away. Dry air is a good insulator, but sea water is not. If a wire was laid under water, the current would all leak away. In any case, all the insulating substances known up to then could be damaged by sea water. But in 1847 gutta-percha was introduced as an insulating material. Gutta-percha is a gummy substance obtained from trees, like rubber, and it does not allow electricity to flow through it easily.
After several unsuccessful attempts, in 1866 Britain and America were linked by the underwater cable by the famous cable-laying ship the Great Eastern. After that cables were laid all over the world, and nowadays it is possible to telegraph from almost everywhere.
1As long as two places were connected by a wire — В условиях, когда два пункта соединены проводом
2This code is still used in signa
+ling all over the world — Этот код до сих пор используется во всем мире для передачи сигналов
3Combining different sets of these «impulses» — Комбинируя различные группы этих импульсов
4because it was the easiest to understand and the fastest to transmit — так как он был самым простым для понимания и самым скоростным для передачи
It is generally a good idea to read a text at least twice: once to get an overall impression of what it’s about, and then a second time to concentrate on the details.
First reading exercises. Read the text once, not too fast, and then do exercises.
1. Does the title of the text express its subject? Add possible subtitles to express the subject of the text.
2. Which of the following statements best expresses the subject of the text?
— the connection of electricity and magnetism;
— the invention of Samuel Morse;
— problems of laying underwater cables;
— the use of electricity and magnetism for sending messages;
— electricity and magnetism and the development of the telegraph.
3. Say in your own words what is the subject of the text.
Second reading exercises. Read the text again and pay special
attention to points that seem difficult. When you think you are ready, try the next exercises.
I. Some of the following sentences say the same thing as part of the text; others have a different meaning. Write the numbers of the sentences and put S (same) or D (different) after each one.
1. Real telegraphs were not possible until it was proved that electricity and magnetism are connected.
2. The Morse code was used many years ago and now it is not used in signalling.
3. The Morse code simplified sending messages but it was not fast.
4. When the telegraph was invented people could send messages a long way at great speed.
5. Soon people wanted to send messages even farther.
6. It was not difficult to connect lands by wires under the sea.
7. Sea water is a good insulator.
8. Britain and America were linked by the underwater cable in 1966.
9. Nowadays it is possible to telegraph from almost everywhere.
II. Answer the comprehension questions:
1. At what speed can messages be sent by electricity?
2. At what speed can the Morse code messages be read?
3. Give two reasons why the Morse code was so widely used.
4. What was the main problem about sending messages by telegraph under the sea?
5. Give two reasons why telegraph cables must be insulated.
6. Why is gutta-percha a good material for insulating telegraph cables?
Your friend and you have a totally different idea of the inventor Thomas Alva Edison and his achievements in practical engineering. You have found this text «Edison’s Lighting System». You are going to use this text for informing your friend about this man.
2. Answer the questions:
— What is your reading purpose?
— How are you going to read? (e.g. to read the text attentively noting every fact; to read the text quickly looking for specific information; to read in a relaxed way to pass the time; etc.)
— What do you know already about Edison?
3. Read the text:
EDISON’S LIGHTING SYSTEM
Only at the end of the 19th century electricity began to play its part in modern civilization. The man who achieved more in this field of practical engineering than any of his contemporaries was the American inventor, Thomas Alva Edison. He became interested in the problem of electric lighting. He knew what had been done in the field of electric lighting before his time, and he had seen some devices of his contemporaries, such as arc-lamp illuminations, which had been installed here and there. Two sticks of carbon (угольный электрод), nearly touching, can be made to produce an electric arc which closes the circuit. Many scientists and inventors working in this field knew that only incandescent (раскаленный) electric light — produced by some substance glowing (светящееся) in a vacuum so that it cannot burn up — could be used instead of gas lighting.
Edison put his laboratories to the task of developing such a lamp His first experimental lamp appeared in 1879. Its light was yellowish and it worked for forty hours; the incandescent electric lamp was born.
4. Use your reading and tell your friend everything you have found out about Edison.
1. What classes of words constitute your reading vocabulary?
2. When does the word become part of your reading vocabulary?
3. Name as many new words from this unit as possible.
4. What can you say about the word order of a simple sentence? Compare the word order in English and in Russian.
5. Did you get the idea why it is important to develop reading skills? What reading skill was introduced in this unit?
6. Did you get any new information from the texts of this unit?